References and Clinical Studies - Helmintherapy

This page contains the following references:

Scientific and Clinical Publications

  1. Abner SR, Hill DE, Turner JR, Black ED, Bartlett P, Urban JF Jr, Mansfield LS (2002) Response of intestinal epithelial cells to Trichuris suis excretory-secretory products and the influence on Campylobacter jejuni invasion under in vitro conditions. J Parasitol 88:738-745

  2. Albonjco M, Stoltzfus RJ, Savioli L, Tielsch JM, Chwaya HM, Ercole E, Cancrini G (1998) Epidemiological evidence for a differential effect of hookworm species, Ancylostoma duodenale or Necator americanus, on iron status of children. Int J Epidemiol 27:530-537
  3. Aoyama H, Hirata T, Sakugawa H, Watanabe T, Miyagi S, Maeshiro T, Chinen T, Kawane M, Zaha O, Nakayoshi T, Kinjo F, Fujita J (2007) An inverse relationship between autoimmune liver diseases and Strongyloides stercoralis infection. Am J Trop Med Hyg 76:972-976
  4. Bee RJ (1976) The relationship between Trichuris trichiura (Linnaeus 1758) of man and Trichuris suis (Schrank 1788) of the pig. Res Vet Sci 20:47-54
  5. Belizario VY, Amarillo ME, de Leon WU, de los Reyes AE, Bugayong MG, Macatangay BJ (2003) A comparison of the efficacy of single doses of albendazole, ivermectin, and diethylcarbamazine alone or in combinations against Ascaris and Trichuris spp. Bull World Health Organ 81:35-42
  6. Cookson, W. O. C. M., and M. F. Moffatt. 1997. Asthma: an epidemic-in-the-absence-of infection? Science 275:41.
  7. Correale J, Farez M (2007) Parasite infections modulate the immune response in multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol 61:97-108
  8. Croese J, Speare R (2006) Intestinal allergy expels hookworms: seeing is believing. Trends in Parasitol 12:547-550
  9. Croese J, O'neil J, Masson J, Cooke S, Melrose W, Pritchard D, Speare R (2006a) A proof of concept study establishing Necator americanus in Crohn's patients and reservoir donors. Gut 55:136-137
  10. Croese J, Wood M, Melrose W, Speare R (2006b) Allergy controls the population density of Necator americanus in the small intestine. Gastroenterology 131:402-409
  11. de Silva NR, Brooker S, Hotez PJ, Montresor A, Engels D, Savioli L (2003) Soil-transmitted helminth infections: updating the global picture. Trends Parasitol 19:547-551
  12. Doetze, A., J. Satoguina, G. Burchard, T. Rau, C. Loliger, B. Fleischer, and A. Hoerauf. 2000. Antigen-specific cellular hyporesponsiveness in a chronic human helminth infection is mediated by Th3/Tr1-type cytokines IL-10 and transforming growth factor-Beta but not by a Th1 to Th2 shift. Int. Immunol. 12:623.
  13. Elliott DE, Summers RW, Weinstock JV (2007) Helminths as governors of immune-mediated inflammation. Int J Parasitol 37:457-464
  14. Fleming J, Fabry Z (2007) The hygiene hypothesis and multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol 61:97-108
  15. Fox, J. G., P. Beck, C. A. Dangler, M. T. Whary, T. C. Wang, H. N. Shi, and C. Nagler-Anderson. 2000. Concurrent enteric helminth infection modulates inflammation and gastric immune responses and reduces Helicobacter-induced gastric atrophy. Nat. Med. 6:536.
  16. Hadley C (2004) Should auld acquaintance be forgot. EMBO Rep 5:1122-1124
  17. Holgate ST, Lack G (2005) Improving the management of atopic disease. Archives of Disease in Childhood 90:826-831
  18. Hotez PJ, Pritchard DI (1995) Hookworm infection. Sci Am 272:68-74
  19. Hotez PJ, Brooker S, Bethony JM, Bottazzi ME, Loukas A, Xiao S (2004) Hookworm infection. New Eng J Med 351:799-807
  20. Hsu S-J, Tseng P-H, Chen P-J (2005) Trichuris suis therapy for ulcerative colitis: nonresponsive patients may need anti-helminth therapy. Gastroenterology 129:768-769
  21. Hunter & McKay: Helminths as therapeutic agents for inflammatory bowel disease. Aliment-Pharmacol-Ther. 2004 Jan 15; 19(2): 167-77.
  22. Hunter M, Wang A, McKay D (2007) Helminth infection enhances disease in a murine TH2 model of colitis. Gastroenterology 132:1320-1330
  23. Jacobson DL, Gange SJ, Rose NR, Graham NM (1997) Epidemiology and estimated population burden of selected autoimmune diseases in the United States. Clin Immunol Immunopath 84:223-243
  24. Joven J, Hotez PJ, Brooker S, Bethany J (2005) Hookworm infection. New Eng J Med 352:205
  25. Lynch, N. R., I. Hagel, M. Perez, M. C. D. Prisco, R. Lopez, and N. Alvarez. 1993. Effect of anti-helminthic treatment on the allergic reactivity of children in a tropical slum. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 92:404.
  26. Magen E, Borkow G, Bentwich Z, Mishal J, Scharf S (2005) Can worms defend our hearts? Chronic helminthic infections may attenuate the development of cardiovascular diseases. Med Hypoth 64:904-909
  27. Mansfield LS, Gauthier DT, Abner SA, Jones KM, Wilder SR, Urban JF (2003) Enhancement of disease and pathology by synergy of Trichuris suis and Campylobacter jejuni in the colon of immunologically naïve swine. Am J Trop Med Hyg 68:70-80
    McKay DM (2006) The beneficial helminth parasite. Parasitology 132:1-12

  28. Mortimer K, Brown A, Feary J, Jagger C, Lewis S, Antoniak M, Pritchard D, Britton J (2006) Dose-ranging study for trials of therapeutic infection with Necator americanus in humans. Am J Trop Med Hyg 75:914-920
  29. Radford-Smith GL (2005) Will worms really cure Crohn's disease? Treatment of Crohn's disease patients with the intestinal helminth Trichuris suis appears safe and effective in the short term, even with concurrent immunosuppressive therapy. Gut 54:6-8
  30. Reddy A, Fried B (2007) The use of Trichuris suis and other helminth therapies to treat Crohn's disease. Parasitol Research 100:921-927
  31. Reddy A, Fried B (2008) Atopic disorders and parasitic infections. Adv Parasitol 66:149-191
  32. Rook GA, Adams V, Hunt J, Palmer R, Martinelli R, Brunet LR (2004) Mycobacteria and other environmental organisms as immunomodulators for immunoregulatory disorders. Springer Seminar Immunopathol 25:237-255
  33. Shi, H. N., C. J. Ingui, I. Dodge, and C. Nagler-Anderson. 1998. A helminth-induced mucosal Th2 response alters non-responsiveness to oral administration of a soluble antigen. J. Immunol. 160:2449.
  34. Shoenfeld Y, Harats D, Wick G (2001) Atherosclerosis and autoimmunity. Elsevier, UK, pp 1-396
  35. Stoltzfus RJ, Dreyfuss ML, Chwaya HM, Albonico M (1997) Hookworm control as a strategy to prevent iron deficiency. Nutr Rev 55:223-232
  36. Strachan, D. P. 1989. Hay fever, hygiene and household size. (The Hygiene Hypothesis) Br. Med. J. 299: 1259.
  37. Summers RW, Elliott DE, Qadir K, Urban JF Jr, Thompson R, Weinstock JV (2003) Trichuris suis seems to be safe and possibly effective in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Am J Gastroenterol 98:2034-2041
  38. Summers RW, Elliott DE, Urban JF Jr, Thompson R, Weinstock JV (2005a) Trichuris suis therapy in Crohn's disease. Gut 54:87-90
  39. Summers RW, Elliott DE, Weinstock JV (2005b) Is there a role for helminths in the therapy of inflammatory bowel disease. Nature Clinical Prac Gastroent Hepatol 2:62-63
  40. Summers RW, Elliott DE, Weinstock JV (2005c) Why Trichuris suis should prove safe for use in inflammatory bowel diseases. Inflamm Bowel Dis 11:783-784
  41. Summers RW, Elliott DE, Urban JF Jr, Thompson RA, Weinstock JV (2006) Trichuris suis therapy for active ulcerative colitis: a randomized controlled trial. Gastroenterology 128:825-832
  42. Svoboda E (2006) Scientist at work: David Pritchard, The worms crawl in-New York Times article
  43. Turton, J.A. (1976) IgE, parasites, and allergy. The Lancet ii:686 (text not available online, too old)
  44. van den Biggelaar, A. H. J., R. van Ree, L. C. Rodrigues, B. Lell, A. M. Deelder, P. G. Kremsner, and M. Yazdanbaksh. 2000. Decreased atopy in children infected with Schistosoma haematobium: a role for parasite-induced interleukin-10. Lancet 356:1723.
  45. Van Kruiningen HJ, West AB (2005) Potential danger in the medical use of Trichuris suis for the treatment of inflammatory disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis 11:515
  46. Wang, C.-C., T. J. Nolan, G. A. Schad, and D. Abraham. 2001. Infection of mice with the helminth Strongyloides stercoralis suppresses pulmonary allergic responses to ovalbumin. Clin. Exp. Allergy 31:493.
  47. Wills-Karp, M., J. Santeliz, and C. L. Karp. 2001. The germless theory of allergic disease: revisiting the hygiene hypothesis. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 1:69.
  48. Yazdanbakhsh, M., P. G. Kremsner, and R. van Ree. 2002. Allergy, parasites and the hygiene hypothesis. Science 296:490.

Internet and Media Links

Hanauer SB: Evolving Biologic Therapies for IBD

(Medscape Conference Coverage, based on selected sessions at the:
Digestive Disease Week 2004; May 15 - 20, 2004, New Orleans, Louisiana)

Diet of worms can cure bowel disease.

Porcine Whipworm Ova Safe for Treatment of IBD.

International Biotherapy Society

Hanauer SB: Evolving Biologic Therapies for IBD
(Medscape Conference Coverage, based on selected sessions at the:
Digestive Disease Week 2004; May 15 - 20, 2004, New Orleans, Louisiana)

Diet of worms can cure bowel disease.

Yahoo group devoted to users of helminthic therapy (worm therapy).

Porcine Whipworm Ova Safe for Treatment of IBD