References and Clinical Studies - Maggot Therapy

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Scientific and Clinical Publications (in alphabetical order):

  1. Anderson I. Debridement methods in wound care. Nurs Stand. 2006 Feb 22-28;20(24):65-6, 68, 70 passim. PMID: 16526165

  2. Armstrong DG, Salas P, Short B, Martin BR, Kimbriel HR, Nixon BP, Boulton AJ. Maggot therapy in "lower-extremity hospice" wound care: fewer amputations and more antibiotic-free days. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2005 May-Jun;95(3):254-7. PMID: 15901812
  3. Armstrong DG, Mossel J, Short B, Nixon BP, Knowles EA, Boulton AJ. Maggot debridement therapy: a primer. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2002 Jul-Aug;92(7):398-401. PMID: 12122127
  4. Attinger CE, Janis JE, Steinberg J, Schwartz J, Al-Attar A, Couch K. Clinical approach to wounds: debridement and wound bed preparation including the use of dressings and wound-healing adjuvants. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2006 Jun;117(7 Suppl):72S-109S. PMID: 16799376
  5. Baer WS. The treatment of chronic osteomyelitis with the maggot (larvae of the blowfly). Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. 1931; 13: 438.
  6. Ballard K, Baxter H. Developments in wound care for difficult to manage wounds. Br J Nurs. 2000 Apr 13-26;9(7):405-8, 410, 412. PMID: 11111435
  7. Beasley WD, Hirst G. Making a meal of MRSA-the role of biosurgery in hospital-acquired infection. J Hosp Infect. 2004 Jan;56(1):6-9. PMID: 14706264
  8. Bell NJ, Thomas S. Use of sterile maggots to treat panniculitis in an aged donkey. Vet Rec. 2001 Dec 22-29;149(25):768-70. PMID: 11808664
  9. Bonn D. Maggot therapy: an alternative for wound infection. Lancet. 2000 Sep 30;356(9236):1174. PMID: 11030307
  10. Calianno C, Jakubek P. Wound bed preparation: laying the foundation for treating chronic wounds, part I. Nursing. 2006 Feb;36(2):70-1. No abstract available. PMID: 16462279
  11. Church J. Biosurgery in wound healing. J Wound Care. 1996 Feb;5(2):51. PMID: 8697131
  12. Church JC. Re: Bleeding complications in patients treated with maggot debridement therapy, Steenvoorde P and Oskam J, IJLEW 2005;4(1):57-58. Int J Low Extrem Wounds. 2005 Mar;4(1):59. PMID: 15860454
  13. Church JC, Courtenay M. Maggot debridement therapy for chronic wounds. Int J Low Extrem Wounds. 2002 Jun;1(2):129-34. Erratum in: Int J Low Extrem Wounds. 2002 Sep;1(3):213. PMID: 15871963
  14. Claxton MJ, Armstrong DG, Short B, Vazquez JR, Boulton AJ. 5 questions--and answers--about maggot debridement therapy. Adv Skin Wound Care. 2003 Mar-Apr;16(2):99-102. PMID: 12690234
  15. Dunn C, Raghavan U, Pfleiderer AG. The use of maggots in head and neck necrotizing fasciitis. J Laryngol Otol. 2002 Jan;116(1):70-2. PMID: 11860662
  16. Evans P. Larvae therapy and venous leg ulcers: reducing the 'yuk factor'. J Wound Care. 2002 Nov;11(10):407-8. PMID: 12494833
  17. Fitzpatrick M. Tiny "surgeons" prove surprisingly effective. JAMA. 2000 Nov 8;284(18):2306-7. PMID: 11066163
  18. Hewitt F: Osteomyelitis; Development of the use of maggots in treatment. Am J Nursing. 32: 31-38, 1932.
  19. Husain ZS, Fallat LM. Maggot therapy for wound debridement in a traumatic foot-degloving injury: a case report. J Foot Ankle Surg. 2003 Nov-Dec;42(6):371-6. PMID: 14688781
  20. Jarvis A. Maggot therapy. Lancet. 2000 Dec 9;356(9246):2016. PMID: 11130559
  21. Jones M, Thomas S. Larval therapy. Nurs Stand. 2000 Feb 2-8;14(20):47-51; quiz 53-4. PMID: 11209358
  22. Jukema GN, Menon AG, Bernards AT, Steenvoorde P, Taheri Rastegar A, van Dissel JT. Amputation-sparing treatment by nature: "surgical" maggots revisited. Clin Infect Dis. 2002 Dec 15;35(12):1566-71. Epub 2002 Dec 2. PMID: 12471580
  23. Knowles A, Findlow A, Jackson N. Management of a diabetic foot ulcer using larval therapy. Nurs Stand. 2001 Oct 24-30;16(6):73-6. PMID: 11977731
  24. Krajacic A. Consider using maggots. Todays Surg Nurse. 1998 May-Jun;20(3):28-32. PMID: 10026636
  25. LeClercq M. Utilisation de larves de Dipteres - maggot therapy - en medicine: historique et actualite. Bull Annls Soc belge Ent. 126: 41-50, 1990.
  26. McKeever DC. Maggots in treatment of osteomyelitis. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. 15: 85, 1933.
  27. Mumcuoglu KY. Clinical applications for maggots in wound care. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2001;2(4):219-27. PMID: 11705249
  28. Mumcuoglu KY, Ingber A, Gilead L, Stessman J, Friedmann R, Schulman H, Bichucher H, Ioffe-Uspensky I, Miller J, Galun R, Raz I. Maggot therapy for the treatment of intractable wounds. Int J Dermatol. 1999 Aug;38(8):623-7. PMID: 10487456
  29. Mumcuoglu KY, Ingber A, Gilead L, Stessman J, Friedmann R, Schulman H, Bichucher H, Ioffe-Uspensky I, Miller J, Galun R, Raz I. Maggot therapy for the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. Diabetes Care. 1998 Nov;21(11):2030-1. PMID: 9802765
  30. Namias N, Varela JE, Varas RP, Quintana O, Ward CG. Biodebridement: a case report of maggot therapy for limb salvage after fourth-degree burns. J Burn Care Rehabil. 2000 May-Jun;21(3):254-7. PMID: 10850908
  31. Pechter, E.A., and Sherman, R.A.: Maggot therapy: The Medical Metamorphosis. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 72 (4): 567-570. 1983.
  32. Preuss SF, Stenzel MJ, Esriti A. The successful use of maggots in necrotizing fasciitis of the neck: a case report. Head Neck. 2004 Aug;26(8):747-50. PMID: 15287043
  33. Reames MK, et al. The use of maggots in wound debridement. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 21: 388, 1988.
  34. Rojo S, Geraghty S. Hemophilia and maggots: from hospital admission to healed wound. Ostomy Wound Manage. 2004 Apr;50(4):30, 32, 34. PMID: 15259799
  35. Scavee V, Polis X, Schoevaerdts JC. Maggot therapy: many hands make light work. Acta Chir Belg. 2003 Aug;103(4):405-7. PMID: 14524161
  36. Sealby N. The use of maggot therapy in the treatment of a malignant foot wound. Br J Community Nurs. 2004 Mar;9(3):S16-9. PMID: 15029003
  37. Semple L. Use of larval therapy to treat a diabetic patient's pressure ulcer. Br J Nurs. 2003 Aug;12(15 Suppl):S6-13. PMID: 12937380
  38. Sherman RA: A new dressing design for use with maggot therapy. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 100: 451-456. 1997.
  39. Sherman R. Age-old therapy gets new approval. Adv Skin Wound Care. 2005 Jan-Feb;18(1):12-5. PMID: 15716781
  40. Sherman RA, Morrison S, Ng D. Maggot debridement therapy for serious horse wounds - A survey of practitioners. Vet J. 2006 Jul 8; PMID: 16831562
  41. Sherman RA, Stevens H, Ng D, Iversen E. Treating wounds in small animals with maggot debridement therapy: A survey of practitioners. Vet J. 2005 Dec 27. PMID: 16386439
  42. Sherman RA, Shimoda KJ. Presurgical maggot debridement of soft tissue wounds is associated with decreased rates of postoperative infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2004 Oct 1;39(7):1067-70. Epub 2004 Sep 1. PMID: 15472863
  43. Sherman RA. Maggot therapy for treating diabetic foot ulcers unresponsive to conventional therapy. Diabetes Care. 2003 Feb;26(2):446-51. PMID: 12547878
  44. Sherman RA. Maggot versus conservative debridement therapy for the treatment of pressure ulcers. Wound Repair Regen. 2002 Jul-Aug;10(4):208-14. PMID: 12191002
  45. Sherman RA. Maggot therapy for foot and leg wounds. Int J Low Extrem Wounds. 2002 Jun;1(2):135-42. PMID: 15871964
  46. Sherman RA, Sherman J, Gilead L, Lipo M, Mumcuoglu KY. Maggot debridement therapy in outpatients. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2001 Sep;82(9):1226-9. PMID: 11552195
  47. Sherman RA, Hall MJ, Thomas S. Medicinal maggots: an ancient remedy for some contemporary afflictions. Annu Rev Entomol. 2000;45:55-81. PMID: 10761570
  48. Sherman RA. A new dressing design for use with maggot therapy. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1997 Aug;100(2):451-6. PMID: 9252615
  49. Sherman RA, Pechter EA: Maggot Therapy: A review of the therapeutic applications of fly larvae in human medicine, especially for treating osteomyelitis. Medical and Veterinary Entomology. 2 (3): 225-30. 1988.
  50. Sherman RA, Tran J: A sterile, homogenous food source for Phaenicia sericata. Medical and Veterinary Entomology. 9(4): 393-398. 1995.
  51. Sherman RA, Tran JM, Sullivan R. Maggot therapy for venous stasis ulcers. Arch Dermatol. 1996 Mar;132(3):254-6. PMID: 8607628
  52. Sherman RA, Wyle FA, Thrupp L. Effects of seven antibiotics on the growth and development of Phaenicia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae. J Med Entomol. 1995 Sep;32(5):646-9. PMID: 7473619
  53. Sherman, RA, Wyle, FA, and Thrupp, L: Affect of antimicrobial agents on the growth, feeding and development of Phaenicia sericata (Calliphoridae, DIPTERA) larvae. Journal of Medical Entomology. 32 (5): 646-649. 1995.
  54. Sherman RA, Wyle F, Vulpe M. Maggot therapy for treating pressure ulcers in spinal cord injury patients. J Spinal Cord Med. 1995 Apr;18(2):71-4. PMID: 7640976
  55. Steenvoorde P, Buddingh TJ, van Engeland A, Oskam J. Maggot therapy and the "yuk" factor: an issue for the patient? Wound Repair Regen. 2005 May-Jun;13(3):350-2. PMID: 15953056
  56. Steenvoorde P, Oskam J. Use of larval therapy to combat infection after breast-conserving surgery. J Wound Care. 2005 May;14(5):212-3. PMID: 15909436
  57. Steenvoorde P, Oskam J. Bleeding complications in patients treated with maggot debridement therapy. Int J Low Extrem Wounds. 2005 Mar;4(1):57-8. PMID: 15860453
  58. Steenvoorde P, Jukema GN. The antimicrobial activity of maggots: in-vivo results. J Tissue Viability. 2004 Jul;14(3):97-101. PMID: 15709356
  59. Steenvoorde P, Jukema GN. Can laboratory investigations help us to decide when to discontinue larval therapy? J Wound Care. 2004 Jan;13(1):38-40. PMID: 14969027
  60. Stoddard SR, Sherman RA, Mason BE, Pelsang DJ: Maggot debridement therapy --- an alternative treatment for nonhealing ulcers. Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association. 85 (4): 218-221. 1995.
  61. Summers JB, Kaminski J. Maggot debridement therapy for diabetic necrotic foot. Am Fam Physician. 2003 Dec 15;68(12):2327, 2330. PMID: 14705752
  62. Summers JB, Kaminski J. Maggot debridement therapy (MDT) for burn wounds. Burns. 2003 Aug;29(5):501-2. PMID: 12880736
  63. Thomas S. The use of sterile maggots in wound management. Nurs Times. 2002 Sep 3-9;98(36):45-6. PMID: 12244669
  64. Thomas S, Jones M, Wynn K, Fowler T. The current status of maggot therapy in wound healing. Br J Nurs. 2001 Dec;10(22 Suppl):S5-8, S10, S12. PMID: 11842471
  65. Thomas S, Jones M. Wound debridement: evaluating the costs. Nurs Stand. 2001 Feb 14-20;15(22):59-61. PMID: 12211948
  66. Thomas S, Jones M, Shutler S, Jones S. Using larvae in modern wound management. J Wound Care 1996; 5:60-9.
  67. Thomas S, Andrews AM, Hay NP, Bourgoise S. The anti-microbial activity of maggot secretions: results of a preliminary study. J Tissue Viability. 1999 Oct;9(4):127-32. PMID: 10808842
  68. Thomas S, Andrews A, Jones M, Church J. Maggots are useful in treating infected or necrotic wounds. BMJ. 1999 Mar 20;318(7186):807-8. PMID: 10082718
  69. Vistnes LM, Lee R, Ksander GA. Proteolytic activity of blowfly larvae secretions in experimental burns. Surgery. 1981 Nov;90(5):835-41. PMID: 7029766
  70. Wayman J, Nirojogi V, Walker A, Sowinski A, Walker MA. The cost effectiveness of larval therapy in venous ulcers. J Tissue Viability. 2000 Jul;10(3):91-4. Erratum in: J Tissue Viability 2001 Jan;11(1):51. PMID: 11299572
  71. Wolff H, Hansson C. Larval therapy--an effective method of ulcer debridement. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2003 Mar;28(2):134-7. PMID: 12653696
  72. Wolff H, Hansson C. Larval therapy for a leg ulcer with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Acta Derm Venereol. 1999 Jul;79(4):320-1. No abstract available. PMID: 10429993
  73. Wollina U, Kinscher M, Fengler H. Maggot therapy in the treatment of wounds of exposed knee prostheses. Int J Dermatol. 2005 Oct;44(10):884-6. PMID: 16207200
  74. Wollina U, Liebold K, Schmidt WD, Hartmann M, Fassler D. Biosurgery supports granulation and debridement in chronic wounds—clinical data and remittance spectroscopy measurement. Int J Dermatol. 2002 Oct;41(10):635-9. PMID: 12390183




Internet Sites Specializing in Maggot Therapy:


Wound Care Education Network




Webinars and Maggot Therapy Lectures:


For the latest information about maggot therapy courses and educational programs, check out the BTER Foundation's web pages on Biotherapy Conferences, Lectures and Courses.




Media and Internet News:


For the latest news and information about maggot therapy, check out the BTER Foundation's News and Information pages. Here are some earlier media postings -


CNN Online (10/20/97)

BBC News (Doctor! There's a maggot in my wound; 3/6/99)

BBC News (Maggot Cure for 'Unbeatable' Bug; 3/19/99)

BBC News (Maggot medicine gains popularity; 4/6/02)

Maggot debridement therapy promising; by: Rochelle Nataloni (Mar 1, 2004)

Maggots and leeches: Good medicine By Rita Rubin, USA TODAY

Tiny surgeons: Maggot therapy clears the dead tissue cleanly Tuesday, July 13, 2004 By Christopher Snowbeck, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette

Leeches, maggots and parasitic worms can play healing role By Carol M. Ostrom; Seattle Times staff reporter (Wednesday, August 04, 2004)